There is a keyboard shortcut that lets you quickly sync your email account with Mail for Windows 10, and it can also be used in the discontinued Windows Live Mail and Outlook Express that you may still be using.
Email sync shortcut: Ctrl+M
Syncing Mail in Windows 10
In Mail for Windows 10, there is an icon located at the top of the current account and folder view called Sync this view. It looks like a pair of curved arrows in a circular formation. Clicking this refreshes the current folder or account that you are viewing, syncing it with your email account to retrieve the newest mail (if there is any).
The shortcut will not send an email that is being composed.
On the older Windows Live Mail and Outlook Express toolbar, the Ctrl+M shortcut executes a Send and Receive command, so any emails waiting in the outbox will also be sent.
Now you can use the button less often and rely on the shortcut to see if any new mail has come in.
Windows 10 Built-In Mail Client
Windows 10 comes with a built-in email client. This replaces the older discontinued Outlook Express with a cleaner, easier, and more up-to-date appearance. It offers the email essentials most people need without having to purchase the formal Outlook software.
You can use the Windows Mail client to connect to most popular email accounts, including Outlook.com, Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, iCloud, and Exchange servers, as well as any email that offers POP or IMAP access.
Windows Mail client also offers touch and swipe interface options for devices that have touchscreens.